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What does Loom mean?

A loom is a frame or machine used to weave fabric. Simply put, it works by stretching warp yarns on a frame, through which weft yarns are then threaded. Historians have found evidence of woven cloth as far back as 7000 or 8000 BC, with the first loom dating back to 1800 BC in Egypt.

Heddels explains Loom

While there are several types of looms used today, jeans are almost always woven on either shuttle looms or projectile looms. Shuttle looms work by batting a shuttle with a bobbin of weft thread back and forth through the shed to weave the fabric, creating a closed selvage end on the denim. All jeans were woven on shuttle looms until the 1950s, when, to meet growing demand, manufacturers changed to projectile looms that required less time and fabric per pair of jeans.

Projectile looms do not require a shuttle, instead using a metal device resembling a bullet to propel the yarn through the shed. Fabric created in this way has a raw edge that must be further stitched after weaving to prevent fraying. In the 1980s and 1990s, many Japanese designers returned to using vintage shuttle looms and began marketing more expensive “premium” jeans made with selvage denim, a trend that has exploded in recent years.

Additional Resources

Here is an example of a loom:

Heddels Definition - Loom